Category Archives: story

Thomas Lazenby and Antonia Armstrong – my eight times great grandparents

According to Redmonds dictionary of Yorkshire surnames, Lazenby is an example of a geographical surname which was derived from three possible places, two in Yorkshire: Lazenby near Northallerton and Lazenby near Redcar plus Lazonby in Cumberland, which suggests a number of distinct origins for the surname.

By the early 14th century there were examples of the surname in the North Riding of Yorkshire, York and the West Riding of Yorkshire. A major expansion of the surname had taken place in York and nearby villages and it is possible that my ancestors are descended from this group, although my research is still a work in progress. Certainly, by the 17th century there was a concentration of Laysenby’s and Laysnby’s in York and the nearby village of Huntington who, used distinctive first names like Seth and Wilfray. This group were linked by Redmonds to some important York families, including the anti-clerical poet Wilfrid Holme and the Snawsells family.

By the 1881 census, Lazenby was reasonably numerous in Yorkshire with higher totals in Pocklington, Selby and York. Lazonby was a rarer variant of the surname and found mostly in Durham and Cumberland.

Thomas (b. about 1684) and Antonia (b. about 1684) – Thomas was born about 1684 and there is a possible baptism for him in York dated 28 September 1864 to father Thomas Lazenbie. There is another potential baptism in Holy Trinity Church, York in 1685 to parents John and Ann, however there is also a burial record for a young man called Thomas in 1699 who may be the same person as in this baptism.

Thomas married his wife Antonia Armstrong on 17 June 1704 in St Crux church, York. Their marriage license suggested they were to be married in St Denys Church, York which, at that time, was also linked to the parish of Acaster Malbis. On the license Thomas was described as a yeoman and he signed it together with Thomas Simpson. He gave his residence as “Gilridding” which was a property in Naburn, a village near York. Naburn was also part of the parish of Acaster Malbis and was where Antonia was baptised on 3 December 1684. Her father was Methamus (Matthew) Armstrong (1650-1690) and her mother was his second wife Isabella Gray. The following descendant chart shows what’s been found so far for Methamus and his family:

Descendant chart for Methamus Armstrong

Thomas and Antonia continued to live in Naburn and had at least five children, one son and four daughters. Their second daughter Rebecca (1716-1792) was my 7th great grandmother. She may have had a child called Francis before she married her husband Nicholas Simpson (1714-1800). Rebecca and Nicholas were married by license, dated 20 July 1744, in York Minster on 27 July 1744. Their license described Nicholas as a husbandman aged 27 from Saxton and Rebecca a spinster aged 26 from Stillingfleet. It was signed Nicklas Simpson, John Nicholson and Wm Morritt. Saxton is about 12 miles from York and 8 miles from Stillingfleet. Stillingfleet is 3 miles from Naburn and 7 miles from York. I do wonder how Nicholas and Rebecca met.

The following outline descendant report shows Thomas, Antonia, their children and grandchildren.

Descendant report for Thomas Lazenby

Towards the top of the chart, I have highlighted Francis Lazenby, as one hypothesis I have, is that he was Rebecca’s illegitimate son. He appears in the Saxton records in 1756 when an indenture was paid for his apprenticeship to William Stoker, wheelwright. Francis married Susannah Stubbs (1739-1810) in Saxton on 11 April 1770 by license. The license was witnessed by John Firth and Will Morritt. It is possible that Will was either the same person who witnessed Rebecca and Nicholas’ marriage license or someone related to him. It does seem that there were some connections between the Morritt and Nicholson families, as there is a record of a William Morritt marrying Ann Nicolson on 3 December 1736 in Saxton church.

Francis and Susannah had at least six children; two of their son’s baptisms described his mother as Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Lazenby of Stockton, and his father as John Lazenby also of Stockton. It is likely that Stockton was a property about 10 miles North West of Saxton. However, no baptism has been found for Francis. 

Descendants of Rebecca and Nicholas Simpson continued to live in Saxton into the 19th century and can be found in census records. For example, William Simpson (1787-1861), my first cousin 7 times removed, was recorded in the 1851 census in Saxton village and was described as a farmer of 35 acres employing one labourer.

Lewis’ 1848 topographical dictionary of England described Saxton as follows:

Saxton, Yorkshire from Lewis’ Topographical Dictionary of England

Members of the Lazenby and Simpson families were found as tenants of both the Gascoigne family and Lord Hawke in the West Yorkshire land tax records held on Ancestry.

Lastly – I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post. So far, I’ve been unable to find burial burials for Thomas Lazenby and Antonia. He may have moved to a property called Stockton 10miles North West of Saxton, but a search of the burials records for the surrounding parishes has so far failed to find them. They weren’t found in the records of the parishes of Naburn or Stillingfleet either. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share with me.

Bibliography:

Births, marriages and deaths. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed September 2021.

Census. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed September 2021.

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed September 2021.

Naburn (in parish of Acaster Malbis). https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/AcasterMalbis : accessed September 2021.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

Saxton. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Saxton : accessed September 2021.

Stillingfleet. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Stillingfleet : accessed September 2021.

UK, Duties Paid for Apprentices’ Indentures, 1710-1811. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed September 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Select Land Tax Records, 1704-1932. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed September 2021.

York Minster Marriage Register. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ARY/York/MarriagesYorkMinster : accessed September 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed September 2021.

Moses Jewitt and Hannah Musgrave – my six times great grandparents

Moses (1736-1822) and Hannah (1735-1811) both have surnames featured in Redmonds dictionary of Yorkshire surnames. They are also brick walls in my Sarginson ancestral line.

According to Redmonds, Jewitt/Jewett could be surname variants of the Bradford surname Jowett, derived from “Juett”, the diminutive of Julian, a pet form of a popular female name. In the 1881 census Jowett/Jowitt surnames were mostly found in the West Riding of Yorkshire; in the same census, the variant Jewitt was more frequent than Jewett, although both were present across a number of places in Yorkshire. It is thought likely that these surname variants originated from more than family.

Redmonds dictionary identified that the surname Musgrave was derived from a specific place: Musgrave near Kirkby Stephen in Westmorland and that there was a long history of the surname in and around Leeds in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It seems that in the Tudor period Musgraves of different social statuses settled in both the East and North Ridings of Yorkshire. In the 1881 census Musgrave was found in the highest numbers in Yorkshire; the rare West Riding variant Musgreave was largely confined to the Barnsley and Wakefield areas.

Moses, Hannah and their family – Moses and Hannah, my six times great grandparents, settled in Howden. Moses was described in parish records as a labourer. Together thy had a son and five daughters. Their eldest daughter Hannah (1768-1827), my five times great grandmother, is highlighted on the following chart with a blue circle, her parents are circled in black and her brother Moses in purple. 

Moses and Hannah – descendant dandelion chart

Hannah married Elias South (1768-1831) and they lived in Hooke/Hook (a few miles from Howden),  which was described in Lewis’s topographical directory of 1848 as follows:

Hooke from Lewis’ 1848 Topographical Directory

Moses senior, Hannah, son Moses and most of their daughters continued to live in Howden. Moses senior died at the age of 86 and was buried in St Peter’s churchyard, Howden on 18 June 1822. By then his son Moses (1767-1833) had become the landlord of the Black Bull Inn, Bridgegate, Howden. After Moses died in 1833, his wife Hannah (1771-1845) continued as the inn keeper. She was recorded there in the 1841 census with her daughter Elizabeth (1804-1857), Elizabeth’s husband Thomas Edmondson (1803-1865), a school master and their family.  When Hannah died, aged 76, on 7 February 1845, she was described in a local newspaper (Yorkshire Gazette 15 February 1845) as the “relict of the late Moses Jewitt of the Black Bull Inn”. Howden was described in Lewis’s topographical directory of 1848 as follows:

Howden from Lewis’s 1848 Topographical Directory

Elizabeth, my first cousin six times removed, her husband Thomas Edmondson and their family were still living in Bridgegate, Howden in the 1851 census. After Elizabeth’s death, Thomas and their children moved at some point to Pinfold St, Howden where they were recorded in the 1861 census. Helpfully, Thomas gave his occupation as a school master of the National School. The school had been purpose built in 1826 in Pinfold St and it catered for both boys and girls who had paid a nominal fee. None of their children became school teachers.

Lastly – I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post. I am particularly interested in Moses senior and his wife Hannah Musgrave, as I am not sure that I have found either their baptisms or marriage. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Bibliography:

Births, marriages and deaths. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed August 2021.

British Newspaper Collection. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed August 2021.

Butler, Susan and Powis, Ken. (1994) Howden an East Riding market town. Goole: Gilberdyke Local History Group.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed August 2021.

Howden. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Howden : accessed August 2021.

Howdenshire History. http://www.howdenshirehistory.co.uk/howden/shops-bridgegate-history.html : accessed August 2021.

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed August 2021.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

Wakefield. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Wakefield : accessed August 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed August 2021.

Saltmarsh family – a rare Yorkshire surname

Whilst I was researching my Silversides ancestors, I came across two women who had married into the Saltmarsh family, Ann Silversides (1823-1853) my fourth great aunt and Ann Silversides (born 1813) my second cousin five times removed. Saltmarsh is another very unusual Yorkshire surname which according to Redmonds (page 640) links to a specific place, Saltmarshe, a village on the River Ouse, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. It’s in the parish of Howden. The following map shows the position of Saltmarshe on the River Ouse.

OS Yorkshire 238 date 1852

A prominent gentry family used the spelling Saltmarshe and Sir Lionel Saltmarshe was knighted by William the Conqueror in 1067. It is an uncommon surname although the variant Saltmarsh is now more numerous in other parts of Yorkshire.

Lewis had the following to say about Saltmarsh in his 19th century topographical directory:

Saltmarsh from Lewis’ topographical directory

Saltmarsh family – Both my fourth great Ann, and my second cousin five times removed Ann, married into the same Saltmarsh family. I have traced their line back to Richard (1689-1736) from Huntington, a village 3 miles NNE of York in the North Riding of Yorkshire. It is approximately 30miles from Huntington to the village of Saltmarsh. The map below shows Huntington and nearby villages.

OS Yorkshire 157 date 1854

The following dandelion chart for Richard shows him, his wife Ann Allison (born 1702) and two generations of descendants. The blue circle highlights Richard (1790-1868) whose son Richard married my fourth great aunt Ann Silversides and the green circle denotes John Saltmarsh (1806-1831) who married Ann, my second cousin five times removed.

Dandelion chart for Richard Saltmarsh and Ann Allison

So far, I haven’t found a connection between Richard’s family and the Saltmarshe gentry family.

My ancestors – Ann Silversides, my 4th great aunt, was baptised on 12 March 1823 in St Mary’s Church, Riccall. She married Richard Saltmarsh (1822-1900) on 6 July 1843 in the same church. Richard had been baptised to parents Richard Saltmarsh (1790-1868) and Sarah Simpson (born 1800) on 8 September 1822 in the nearby market town of Selby.

By 1851 the family were living Kelfield where Richard was described as a brickyard labourer. Richard and Ann had three sons. After Ann’s death Richard married Jane Wrigglesworth (born 1837) and they moved to Monk Fryston. By 1881 Richard was again a widower living in Lumby Hill in the parish of Monk Fryston in a multi-generational household, with his son Samuel (1848-1935), a railway platelayer, Samuel’s wife Sarah Jane Sykes (1850-1897) and two of their daughters. Richard death in 1900 was registered in the Pontefract civil registration district. More information for the family can be found in the following report.

Descendant report for Richard Saltmarsh – three generations

The people marked on report, Mark in blue and Mary and George Thompson in green, are discussed in the next two sections of this blog post.

Mark Saltmarsh – the divorce in 1877 – Mark (1851-1921) was the youngest son of Richard Saltmarsh and Ann Silversides.  He was born in 1851 in Kelfield and baptised on 25 May 1851 in St Helen’s church in the nearby village of Stillingfleet.

Mark was recorded in the 1861 census living with his aunt Jane Silversides (born 1827) and uncle Thomas Pickersgill (born 1821) in Walmgate, York. He married his first wife Lucy Toes (born 1855) on 21 February 1871 in York Registry Office and by the 1871 census they were living with her parents at 34 Oxford Street, York. Mark was described as an engine fitter. According to Mark and Lucy’s divorce papers they had moved to 22 English Street, Hull later in April 1871. Mark said that Lucy had lived with him for about 11 days before returning to York.

Mark filed for divorce on 28 May 1877 on the grounds of Lucy’s adultery. In his affidavit he was described as a marine engine fitter living at 10 English Street, Hull and in it he stated that from:

April 1871 to the twenty fifth day of May 1877 as I am informed and believe to be true the said Lucy Saltmarsh has been leading the life of a common prostitute in the City of York and has during such period repeatedly committed adultery with men.

Although Mark had been aware of Lucy’s adultery for some years, he had been unable to file divorce papers sooner because, as a marine engine fitter, he had had long spells of time working on steamers away from home and had limited means. He filed his petition through William Wilkinson solicitors located in St Helen’s Square, York. By a strange coincidence I used the same firm to carry out a conveyance task some 130 years.

A court hearing for Mark’s divorce petition was held in open court at Westminster on 26 February 1878; a further hearing took place on 9 April 1878 when, after hearing evidence from Mark and witnesses including his uncle Thomas Pickersgill, Mark was granted a decree nisi. The final decree absolute was granted on 19 November 1878. The York Herald reported the undefended case on 13 April 1878 with some additional information about Lucy:

It was now shown by the evidence of o policeman named Denham that the respondent lived the life of a prostitute in Priory Street, York and at the house of a woman named Maud Crawford.”

After his divorce Mark wasted little time in re-marrying. As Mark Charles Saltmarche, bachelor and engineer, he married Sarah Ann Rodgers (born 1855) on 12 April 1878 in Holy Trinity Church, Hull, by licence. At the time Mark was living in Queen Street, Hull and Sarah at 17 English Street, Hull. They had a daughter Jane (born Q2 1878) soon after their marriage and in 1881 Sarah and Jane were living at 158 Bean Street, Hull with Sarah describing herself as a marine engineer’s wife. So far, I’ve been unable to trace Sarah and Jane’s whereabouts after 1881. 

Mark was 1st engineer on the SS Cincora in docked in Barcelona, Spain in the 1881 census.  The cargo ship was a screw steamer, built in 1874, and engaged in foreign trade. It sank after a collision with another vessel near Dungeness, Kent on 25 January 1893. It was carrying a cargo of lead and oranges from Valencia in Spain to London.

Mark settled in Wales and married his third wife, Mary Hughes (1865-1940) in the Bridgend, Wales Registry Office on 25 January 1888. They were both said to come from Porthcawl in Wales. Mark and Mary had a son and two daughters and Mary had a son who later used the surname Saltmarche. Mark continued working as a marine engineer. In the 1911 census Mark was a boarder living with the Smith family at 141 Carlisle Street, Splott, Cardiff. His wife Mary was recorded as a housekeeper in the entry for the Sevine family, living at 36 Janet Street, Splott, Cardiff, a few minutes’ walk from where her husband was a boarder. Mark’s death was registered in Q4 1921 in Cardiff, Glamorgan, Wales.

Two cousins marry – Mary Saltmarsh and George Thompson – Mary (born 1890) in Porthcawl, Wales was the eldest daughter of Mark and Mary. She wasn’t living with her mother and two siblings in 1911 and was a boarder with the Jackson family in Batley, West Riding of Yorkshire.  How she had secured work as a cotton weaver is not clear, however at some point she had met her 1st cousin once removed, George Thompson (born 1890). They married on 5 February 1916 in the parish church of Middleton, Yorkshire. George gave his occupation as a miner from Belle Isle, and that his father George was deceased and been a railway guard. Mary’s address at the time of their marriage was recorded as 36 Janet Street, Cardiff where her mother had been living in the 1911 census. Her father was given as Mark Charles Saltmarsh, a seafaring engineer. Unfortunately, further records for the couple have been difficult to trace.  

Wilberfoss family – Ann (born 1813), my second cousin five times removed, married John Saltmarsh (1806-1831) on 22 March 1831 in St John the Baptist church, Wilberfoss. John died at the age of 25 and was buried in the churchyard on 12 September 1831. Ann was pregnant with their daughter Elizabeth (1832-1854) who was baptised in the same church on 12 January 1832. Ann re-married and called one of her sons by her second marriage to John Shaw (born 1799), Silversides John Shaw (born 1850).

St John the Baptist Church, Wilberfoss by DS Pugh

Lastly – I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the maps used in this blog have been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography:

Births, marriages and deaths. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

British newspaper collection. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

City of York Apprentices and Freemen, 1272-1930. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

City of York Militia and Muster Rolls 1509-1829. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

England and Wales, Civil Divorce Records, 1858-1918. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Glamorganshire, Wales, Anglican Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1570-1994. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Huntington. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/NRY/Huntington : accessed June 2021.

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed June 2021.

Maritime history Archive. https://mha.mun.ca/mha/holdings/crewlist.php : accessed June 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

Riccall. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Riccall/ : accessed June 2021.

St John the Baptist Church, Wilberfoss by D S Pugh. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page : accessed June 2021.

Saltmarshe. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Howden/more : accessed June 2021.

SS Cincora. https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?194887 : accessed June 2021.

Stillingfleet. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Stillingfleet : accessed June 2021.

UK, Poll Books and Electoral Registers, 1538-1893. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

UK, Royal Hospital, Chelsea: Regimental Registers of Pensioners, 1713-1882.  https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1813-1935. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Wilberfoss. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Wilberfoss : accessed June 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Fughill family – a rare Yorkshire surname

In my recent blog post on the Silversides family, I briefly mentioned my six times great grandparents, William Silversides (1726-1802) and Mary Fughill (1731-1810).  While I’ve been able to trace William’s ancestral line further back, finding out more about Mary has proved more challenging. Her father William Fughill, possibly baptised in Yapham in the East Riding of Yorkshire and buried in Great Givendale, is one of my many brick walls.

Origin of surname – Redmonds’ book on Yorkshire surnames has an entry for Fugill (page 290) which explains that only 72 occurrences of the surname were found in the 1881 census; 27 in Gloucestershire and 39 in the East Riding of Yorkshire. His view was that the surname derives from ‘fowl’, i.e., a winged creature, and that it may have been a nickname. Other possible variants are Fewlas (p271) with 32 occurrences in 1881, 31 of which were in the Hull area and Feugil (p270), a rare variant with only five people with this surname found in Pocklington in 1881.  Two early examples of the surname which are of particular interest are William Foughill who served on inquisitions in Beverley and Cave in 1421 and John and Peter Foughyll who were taxed in South Cave in 1381.

Using baptism and burial records I found a William Fuggell (d 1659) with eight possible children. There are baptism records form them in the chapelry in Yapham and baptisms and burials in All Saints Church, Pocklington. The following is an embryonic descendant chart for the family which so far, I have been unable to connect with Mary Fughill my six times great grandmother and her father William.

Descendant chart for William Fuggell

The following extract from the OS Yorkshire 176 map dated 1854 shows the relative positions of Yapham and Pocklington:

OS Yorkshire 176 dated 1854

My ancestors – Mary Fughill was baptised on 30 December 1731 in St Ethelburga’s Church, Great Givendale, a village three miles north of Pocklington. Her father’s name was recorded as William (about 1695-1768). He had married his wife Jane Hare (1702-1783) on 1 June 1721 in All Saints, Pocklington. Their marriage record noted that William was from Yapham and Jane from Meltonby; both are hamlets in the parish of Pocklington. William was buried on 15 December 1685 in Great Givendale churchyard and his record noted that he was a tailor and a farmer.

St Ethelburga’s Church, Great Givendale by David Nulty

William’s wife, Jane, was buried on 19 October 1783 in St James’ churchyard, Warter. Her burial record stated that she was from Great Givendale; it is likely that she went to live with her daughter, also called Jane, after William had died as she had moved to Warter with her husband.

Mary was one of seven children I’ve found born to the couple; three sons and four daughters. Unfortunately, none of their baptism records give William’s occupation. The following chart shows William and Jane (connected by red lines), their children and grandchildren. William and his daughter Mary are marked on the chart with black circles.

William Fughill descendant dandelion chart

Brief biographies for William and Jane’s children are as follows:

  • William (1722-1723) baptised in Yapham and died in infancy. He was buried in All Saints Church, Pocklington.
  • Prudence (b. 1724) baptised in Great Givendale; so far, I’ve not been able to trace any further records for her.
  • Jane (1726-1811) baptised in Great Givendale, married Richard Hotham (1725-1814) a labourer/small farmer and together they had five children. Jane was buried in Warter churchyard.
  • Mary (1731-1810) baptised in Great Givendale, married William Silversides (1726-1802) and had five sons. Mary is buried in Riccall churchyard.
  • Judith (1735-1782) baptised in Great Givendale and was Wilberfoss Love’s (1735-1804) first wife. They had one daughter. Judith was baptised in Great Givendale’s churchyard.
  • John (1737-1786) baptised in Great Givendale, married Mary Hare (1736-1835) and they had eight children. John also had an unnamed son with Mary Goodyear before his marriage. Most of the baptisms of his children note that he was a yeoman. John was buried in Great Givendale churchyard.
  • William (1741-1779) baptised in Great Givendale and married twice. His first wife was Jane James (1741-1777) and they had a daughter. His second wife was Elizabeth Hudson (1743-1822) and they had a daughter. William was buried in Great Givendale churchyard with his cause of death given as consumption.

The blue circles on the above dandelion chart highlight John (1737-1786) and his son Thomas (1771-1848).  

Thomas Fuggill (1771-1848) and the American connection – Thomas was baptised on 17 February 1771 in Great Givendale.. His first wife was Sarah Richardson (b. 1775) and he may have married a second wife called Ann although this is still a working theory at the moment. The following chart shows Thomas, his wives Sarah/Ann and five children, two sons and three daughters.

Thomas Fuggill descendant dandelion chart

Two of Thomas’ children have interesting stories, Thomas (1803-1877) and Sarah (1805-1847). They are marked in blue on the above chart together with their father Thomas.

Thomas’ second son Thomas (1803-1877), my second cousin six times removed, married twice. His first wife was Margaret Craike (1804-1844) who he married on 30 December 1823 in St James’ Church, Pocklington and together they had six children. His second wife was Elizabeth Banks, nee Tilburn (1811-1876) with whom he had a daughter. Elizabeth had two daughters from her first marriage.

All Saints Church, Pocklington by Keith Laverack

By the 1851 census it is likely that Thomas had already travelled to America. Elizabeth, her daughters Sarah Banks (1840-1882) and Ann Banks (b. 1841), Jane (sometimes called Jennie) (1848-1885) her daughter with Thomas and two of Thomas’s sons William (1837-1913) and John (1841-1913) were living in Chapmangate, Pocklington. (A photograph of Chapmangate can be seen on the Pocklington History website.)

Elizabeth, William, John, Sarah, Ann, Jane and Thomas’ son Robert (b. 1828) all travelled together from Liverpool to the port of New York on the ship David Cannon. The family arrived on 8 November 1851. The immigrants’ ships database transcribed their surname as Tugall and on the original document it looks like Fugall. The names and ages of the family are correct though. Robert was described as a labourer.

In the 1860 US census Thomas, Elizabeth, William and Jane were recorded as living in Castile, Wyoming county, New York state with Thomas described as a farmer. The town of Castile was established in the early 19th century and was separated from the nearby town of Perry.

Thomas applied for and was granted US naturalisation on 19 December 1866. It is possible that his son Robert also applied for naturalisation in 1867 but the record is incomplete.

The family were still living in Castile in 1870 and had been joined by Elizabeth’s daughter Sarah Banks. Thomas’ wife Elizabeth died on 13 May 1876 in Castile and Thomas on 14 January 1877. In his will he left his estate to be divided into thirds for his son William, daughter Jane and his late wife’s daughter Sarah Banks. Jane died on 7 November 1885 and all three are included on a memorial stone in Hope Cemetery, Perry, Wyoming County, New York State.

Jane left a will when she died on 7 November 1885. She appointed Ann Willey and Henry B Stainton (who married her sister Sarah Banks) as executors. Her heirs included her three brothers, Robert, William and John. It seems that only William could be found. The papers lodged with the Court did indicate that Robert had been living in Chillicothe, Illinois and John in Burlington, New Jersey. These clues helped me find further members of the family as follows:

  • In the case of Robert, he seems to have divorced his wife Christiana Dunbar (1841-1881) at some point before her death. Sadly, she committed suicide and her cause of death was recorded as “arsenic administered by her own hand”.
  • William does not seem to have married and he too was buried in Hope Cemetery, like his parents and sister Jane. He served in the 11th Infantry of the US army from 1883-1892.
  • John served as a private in the 2nd Mounted Rifles in the US Civil War on the Union side. He married and had seven children. By 1910 he was described as a retired carpenter living in Trenton, New Jersey.

A policeman in the family – Sarah Fuggill (1805-1847), my second cousin six times removed, was the youngest daughter of Thomas (1771-1848).  Her only child, John (1831-1887), was illegitimate. Sarah married Elijah Fowler (1821-1878) on 22 April 1840 in St Michael’s Church, Thornton. Elijah was described as a farm servant. Sarah died in 1847 in York and Elijah went onto marry twice more.

Elijah’s second wife was Hannah Sweeting (1827-1870) who he married on 12 August 1848 in St Mary’s Church, Bishophill Junior, York. Elijah was described as a widower and policeman. His West Yorkshire police record provided the following information about him:

  • Physical characteristics – height 5ft 10 ¼ins, of florid complexion with dark brown hair and hazel eyes.
  • Elijah was married and could read and write. 
  • Served in York city for 5½years and Aberford, Yorkshire for 3 years and 7 months before being appointed to the Skyrack Police Service on 9 January 1857.  
  • Sustained an injury to his left hip bone in the Barnsley Election Riots on 24 November 1868.
  • Received a knife injury to his left leg while trying to arrest Joseph Walton in Aberford on 15 April 1869.
  • Elijah died on 24 August 1878.

Elijah married his third wife, Mary Ann Gray (born 1829), a widow, on 3 June 1871 in Aberford. The Yorkshire Quarter Session Records of 31 December 1877 confirmed the Police Committee’s recommendation that Elijah should receive a life pension of 2s 4d a day having served for more than 15 years and being too infirm to carry out his duties. Elijah’s death was recorded in the York Herald dated 28 November 1878.

Finally, the brick wall – I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post, and in particular, if there is any information about the parents of my seven times great grandfather William Fughill whose baptism, I’ve been unable to find. The parish records for Yapham are incomplete. I have found some members of the Fuggell family who lived in Yapham in the 17th century – as shown in the descendant chart for William Fuggell at the beginning of this post. So far, I haven’t found any connections between this family group and my ancestors. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the map used in this blog has been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography:

All Saints Church, Pocklington by Keith Laverack. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page : accessed June 2021.

Births, marriages and deaths. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

British newspaper collection. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Castile History Museum. https://castilehistory.weebly.com/ : accessed June 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

FindaGrave. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Great Givendale. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/GreatGivendale : accessed June 2021.

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed June 2021.

New York County Naturalisation Records, 1791-1980. https://www.familysearch.org/ : accessed June 2021.

New York, U.S., Wills and Probate Records, 1659-1999. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

New York Passenger Lists 1846-1890. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Pocklington. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Pocklington : accessed June 2021.

Pocklington History. https://pocklingtonhistory.com/index.php : accessed June 2021.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

St Ethelburga’s Church, Great Givendale by David Nulty. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page : accessed June 2021.

Ship David Cannon. https://immigrantships.net/v4/1800v4/davidcannon18511108_02.html : accessed June 2021.

Thornton. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Thornton : accessed June 2021.

UK, Poll Books and Electoral Registers, 1538-1893. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

United States, New York Land Records, 1630-1975. https://www.familysearch.org/ : accessed June 2021.

United States, Passenger and Crew Lists. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

US census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

U.S., Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

U.S., Returns from Regular Army Infantry Regiments, 1821-1916. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Warter. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Warter : accessed June 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Police Records, 1833-1914. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Yorkshire, England, Quarter Session Records, 1637-1914. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Silversides family – from labourer to farmers and an alleged army fraud

While researching my family history I have come across a number of unusual surnames and this blog post is the second in a series I plan to write about them. I’ve chosen Silversides for this post, in part because it is an interesting surname, and also because it leads to one of my many brick walls.

Origin of surname – according to the Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, Silversides has two possible derivations. Firstly, it’s the plural of Silverside, thought to be a nickname from Middle English: silver plus side (of the body or head). Other names to compare it with are Siluermouth (silver mouth) and Silvertop (silver hair). An alternative is that it is a locative name from Silver Side in Farlam in Cumbria which was recorded in 1485. The following OS Cumberland XVIII map dated 1868 shows its location:

In the case of my own ancestors, I think it’s more likely that their surname, Silversides, is the plural of Silverside, a nickname from Middle English. The majority of family members I’ve found come from the East and West Ridings of Yorkshire. 209 Silversides were recorded in Great Britain in 1881. 

My ancestral connections – William Silversides (1690-1756) is my seven times great grandfather on the Sarginson/Foster side of my family. According to an entry in FindaGrave he was baptised on 5 March 1690/91 in Nun Monkton, West Riding of Yorkshire and his father was named as William.  Nun Monkton is 8 miles Northwest of York and 12 miles from Escrick in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Escrick where William married his wife Mary Brown (1691-1780) on 25 November 1725.

William and Mary had at least six children, five sons and one daughter. Their two eldest sons were born in Stillingfleet and the family then moved to Riccall. The following OS Yorkshire 206 map dated 1851 shows the villages of Stillingfleet and Riccall:

Some of the children’s baptism records give their father’s occupation as a labourer, most likely an agricultural labourer, as Escrick, Stillingfleet and Riccall are all villages within a few miles of each other in the Vale of York known for its agriculture. The following descendant chart shows William and Mary and two generations of their descendants:

The family settled in Riccall. William was buried in St Mary’s Churchyard on 20 June 1756 and his wife Mary on 23 August 1780 when she was described as a widow aged 89 who had died of a fever.

William and Mary’s son William (1726-1802) was my six times great grandfather. He married Mary Fughill (1731-1810) and they had at least five sons. When William died his burial record gave his age as 77 and that he had been a farmer who had died of natural decay. So far, I haven’t found any land tax records for him to indicate from whom he leased land.

Mark Silversides (1755-1833) my five times great grandfather – Mark was William and Mary Fughill’s eldest son. He was baptised on 13 May 1755 in St Mary’s Church, Riccall and he married Elizabeth Cant (1761-1845) on 2 December 1783 in the same church. They had four sons and a daughter and the following dandelion chart shows Mark,  Elizabeth and two generations of their descendants:

Mark and Elizabeth’s eldest son Guy (1784-1861) is my four times great grandfather. He married Mary Tomlinson (1796-1866) in St Mary’s Church on 13 March 1817 and together they had 12 children, five boys and seven daughters.

By 1822 Mark was the licensed victualler at the Greyhound Inn in Riccall according to the 1822 edition of Baines’ History and Directory of the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire. The pub was one of four in Riccall at that time and survives to this day. Baines also helpfully gave the population of Riccall as 599 and that Mark and Robert Silversides, Guy’s father and uncle, were farmers and yeomen in the village.

By the 1841 census Guy had become a shoemaker, a trade he continued until the 1861 census, the last he was recorded in. Riccall, in Lewis’s 1848 topographical directory, had a population of 718 as described in the following extract from it:

Guy died on 11 July 1861 and was buried in St Mary’s Churchyard on 14 July 1861.

Guy and Mary’s children – The dandelion chart in the previous section shows their 12 children. Their eldest son Guy became a tailor and moved to Appleton Roebuck, George a labourer was buried in Riccall, Mark became a shoemaker and was buried in Riccall, William is the subject of the next section and their youngest son Robert died in infancy.

Mary, Susannah and Ellen all married farmers. Bessy married a glass bottle packer and Jane a tanner. Ann married a brickyard labourer and moved to nearby Kelfield. Their fifth daughter Isabella (1830-1885), my three times great grandmother, married Thomas Foster (1825-1902), a brick and tile maker, on 4 March 1848. They settled in the nearby village of Kelfield.

Alleged army fraud – William Silversides (1829-1912) is my 1st cousin 4 times removed and the brother of my three times great grandmother Isabella. By the 1851 census William had moved to Ebenezer Place in the parish of York St George where he was living with his sister Jane and her husband Thomas Pickersgill. William’s occupation was butcher. He married his first wife Frances Walker (1814-1874) on 29 August 1853. They lived at no 33 Shambles, York in both the 1861 and 1871 censuses with William’s occupation a butcher.

William’s first wife, Frances, died in 1874 and he married his second wife Emma Jane Smith (1834-1900) two year later. They had one daughter, Ethel Beatrice Silversides (1879-1959), and in 1881 the family were living at The Priory, Grange Crescent, York. This property exists to this day and is now run as a small hotel. William’s occupation was recorded as an army contractor. Grange Crescent is near to the army barracks in the Fulford Road.

At some point William had gone into partnership with his first wife Frances’ brother Ambrose Walker (1821-1896) as farmers of Naburn Lodge Farm, Askham Bryan. Ambrose was also a butcher in the 1861 census but by 1881 he described himself as a forage contractor. The dissolution of William and Ambrose’s partnership for the farm, by mutual consent, was reported in the 23 February 1884 edition of the Yorkshire Gazette. In the same newspaper, notice was also given of the dissolution of a partnership between William, Ambrose and Ambrose’s nephew John Philips Walker (1855-1892) who were acting as army contractors in York. This seems to have taken place in advance of a case brought before York Crown Court in 1885 of alleged army fraud.

The alleged fraud case was reported in the 1 August 1885 edition of the Yorkshire Gazette. The case was before Mr Justice Mathew. William Silversides and Ambrose Walker, army contractors, and Thomas Christopher Lewis, butcher were indicted:

that they did unlawfully conspire, combine, confederate and agree together, in the years 1883 and 1884, at the township of Gate Fulford, having contracted to supply 3100 tons of forage and straw, and also a certain quantity and quality of meat, did from time to time deliver less weight and inferior quality, and that they by falsely pretending they had delivered the said forage, straw and meat of the quantity and quality contracted for, did receive the contract price for the same, with intent to defraud Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for War; and in pursuance of the said conspiracy did pay certain sums of money to one John Anderson Banks, to bribe and induce him to permit the said breaches of contract to be made, with intent to defraud the said Secretary of State.” (Yorkshire Gazette 1 August 1885, page 1)  

All three defendants entered a plea of not guilty and the case took place over three days. It seems that not all the defendants were indicted on every charge. John Anderson Banks mentioned in the charges was the Quartermaster of the 5th Dragoon Guards and was key to the provision of forage to the troops. This particular aspect related to tenders which had been won by William Silversides to provide forage during the period August 1882 to 1884. The prosecution asserted that short measures of oats had been supplied and that, although this had been noticed by the troops, it wasn’t until July 1884 that Troop Serjeant Major Saul found that the oats were short by 44lb that the matter was raised with Lieutenant Gore. 

The charges against Ambrose and Thomas Christopher Lewis (who was married to his niece) were regarding the quantity and quality of meat supplied to the troops. It was also alleged that they paid bribes to Banks. Banks had been arrested when the regiment arrived in Manchester but had absconded and not been seen since.

A large number of witnesses for the prosecution appeared at the trial, including five Corporals and John Chipchase who was a journeyman butcher who had worked for Lewis. His view was that the meat supplied was often from diseased animals and “he would not have liked to eat the meat himself”.  It seems that he had been let go by Lewis and that when he had previously worked for William Silversides as a butcher, the meat he served hsd been passed was by the health inspectors.

A similarly large number of witnesses appeared for the defendants attesting to their good character; these included a number of officers from the barracks. Both barristers for William and Ambrose closed their remarks to the jury with the assertion that the prosecution had not proved its case. Lewis’ counsel said that the money paid to Banks was the result of “betting transactions”.

There was then some to-ing and fro-ing between the jury foreman, the court and the judge. Eventually the defendants were found not guilty in both cases and were discharged.

After the case William spent some time as a hotel proprietor of the Sea Horse Hotel, Fawcett Street, York where he was recorded as living in 1891. The building is now grade II listed. He also seems to have continued his association with Ambrose as probate was granted to him when Ambrose died in 1896.

By 1901 William was a widower for the second time and living on his own means at The Priory, Fulford Road, York. He had moved to 1 Wilton Terrace, Fulford Road, York by 1911 and was described as a retired farmer and butcher. Probate was granted to his daughter Ethel.

Finally, the brick wall – I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post, and in particular, if there is any information about the parents of my seven times great grandfather William Silversides. I have found some possible family members who lived in Stillingfleet; however, the parish records are rather damaged making it problematic to determine family relationships. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the maps used in this blog have been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography

Births, marriages and deaths. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

England and Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

FindaGrave. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Hanks, Patrick et al. (2016.) The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed June 2021.

Newspapers. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

Nun Monkton. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/NunMonkton : accessed June 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Pugh, R. B. ed. (1976) The Victoria County History of the County of Yorkshire East Riding Volume III. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

Riccall. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Riccall/ : accessed June 2021.

Sea Horse Hotel, York. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1257861 : accessed June 2021.

Silver Side. https://lakesguides.co.uk/html/lgaz/lk10448.htm : accessed May 2021.

UK, City and County Directories, 1766-1946. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed June 2021.

UK, Poll Books and Electoral Registers, 1538-1893. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Vision of Britain. https://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1512-1812. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Palframan family – changing occupations

While researching my family history I have come across a number of unusual surnames and this blog post in the first in a series I plan to write about them. I’ve chosen Palframan for my initial post, in part because it is an interesting occupational surname, and also, because it leads to one of my many brick walls.

Origin of surname

According to the Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, Palfreyman, plus its variants Palphreyman, Palfreman, Palfreeman, Palframan and Parfrement, is an occupational surname from the Middle English palefreiman; a man responsible for the palfrey’s or riding horses, alternatively a groom. In the 1881 census there were 645 occurrences of the name, mainly in the West Riding of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. Interestingly, Redmonds, in his book on Yorkshire surnames, describes another possible spelling variant, Palphramand, and describes the surname as reflecting the man in charge of the palfreys, or saddle horses. He also explained that in 1881 the surname Palframan was most prominent in Selby with Palframand in York and Palfreeman in York and Pocklington.

My ancestral connections

My ancestors mostly use the variant Palframan, although the records for my five times great grandfather, Michael (1722-1812), also include the variant Palfreyman.  Michael died in Pontefract, West Riding of Yorkshire and his burial record gives his age as 90, suggesting he was born about 1722, and that he was a hatter. He was apprenticed to Joseph Rawnsley, a hatter, of Pontefract and his stamp duty was paid in 1740 for his apprenticeship. By 1753 Michael was master to an apprentice, Thomas Thresh, and his occupation given as a felt maker. Despite searching I’ve been unable to find his baptism and parents. I do have a working theory but need more evidence to prove a link. Michael’s 1740 apprenticeship record gave his father’s name as Michael.

The following chart shows Michael and two generations of his descendants. The people circled in black are, reading from left to right, my five times great grandfather Michael, my four times great grandfather John (1754-1839) and my three times great grandfather Michael (1782-1877) who was the father of my two times great grandmother Sarah (1845-1920). Thomas Palframan, annotated in orange at the top of the chart, is the father of my first cousin four times removed, John (1817-1874), who moved to farm in Wistow, Yorkshire and whom more about later. The chart has also been annotated to show where in Yorkshire each family group lived.

Dandelion chart for the Palframan family

Hambleton is 9 miles (about 13 km) from Pontefract and I was intrigued as to why my four times great grandfather John (1754-1839) moved from Pontefract to Hambleton.

John Palframan (1754-1839)

John was baptised on 19 August 1754 in St Giles and St Mary’s church, Pontefract. He married Ann Booth (1751-1831) in the same church on 12 December 1782. They had six sons and two daughters and were living in Hambleton by the time their second son Thomas (1756-1858) was baptised in St Wilfrid’s Church, Brayton. The following map shows the layout of Brayton in 1851; St Wilfrid’s church is marked with a circle.

OS Yorkshire 221 dated 1851

Brayton and Hambleton were largely agricultural areas as described in the following two extracts from Lewis’s topological directory of England dated 1848. At that time only Brayton had a parish church and this is where John and his wife continued to baptise their children.

Description of Brayton from Lewis’ Topographical Directory
Description of Hambleton from Lewis’ Topographical Directory

Whilst living in Hambleton John was recorded as possessing an alehouse licence in 1803 and in 1810 he appeared in land tax records showing that he occupied land owned by the Vicar of Brayton and William Bew senior.   By 1822 he still occupied land owned by William Bew and the Reverend Richard Paver. In the same land tax record his son John (1883-1859) was recorded as occupying land owned by the Hon. Edward Petre, who later became the Mayor of York in 1830.  

John died in January 1839 and was buried on 13 January 1839 in Brayton parish church. The ceremony was conducted by the Vicar of Brayton, the Reverend Richard Paver, the owner of the land he occupied in Hambleton.

John and Ann’s fourth son, Michael Palframan (1792-1877), is my three times great grandfather.  He married his first wife Sarah Slater (1797-1834), on 3 March 1823 in Brayton. They had seven children, four boys and three girls.

By 1832 Michael was also occupying a house and land owned by the Hon. Edward Petre and in the same year Michael appeared in the Poll Book for Hambleton as the occupier of a “farm above £50 per year”. His brother John and Joseph also appeared in the same Poll Book.

Soon after Michael’s first wife Sarah died, he married Martha Seymour (1813-1889), on 26 December 1835. They had nine children: five boys and four girls. I am descended from their daughter, Sarah (1845-1920), my two times great grandmother.

By the 1841 census Michael was described as a farmer in Hambleton. The following map shows the layout of Hambleton in 1850 with a circle around the Wesleyan Chapel.

OS Yorkshire 220 map dated 1850

By 1871 Michael farmed 96 acres and employed three labourers. He lived in Chapel Street, Hambleton. The approximate position of the street can be seen in the above map as the Wesleyan Chapel is located on it.

When Michael died on 25 February 1877 he was described as a farmer from Hambleton and his sons George and Michael, also farmers from Hambleton, were his executors. Michael left effects valued under £450.

Thomas Palframan (1786-1858) and John Palframan (1817-1874)

Thomas was the brother of my three times great grandfather, Michael; i.e., my 4th great uncle. He too became a farmer and by 1832 was farming at Henwick Hall, Burn where the Poll Book recorded him as a “Farmer £50 rent” per year. He continued to farm at Henwick Hall and the 1851 census recorded that he was a farmer of 164 acres employing two men. He was still living at Henwick Hall when he died on 17 March 1858 leaving effects under £600. The following is a modern photograph of Henwick Hall farm:

Modern photograph of Henwick Hall Farm by Bill Henderson/CC BY-SA 2.0

Thomas’ eldest son John (1817-1874) left Burn to farm in Wistow. He was recorded in the 1871 census as a farmer of 86 acres who employed two labourers at “Old Ouse”. John is buried with his wife Sarah Otley (1818-1872) in the churchyard of All Saints Church, Wistow. The majority of their children stayed in Yorkshire except their daughter Mary (1847-1916) and son John (1856-1924) who both emigrated to Ontario, Canada

Finally, the brick wall

I am intrigued as to how the son of a hatter from Pontefract came to move to a more rural area where he kept an alehouse, and also perhaps, became a small farmer. I would like to know more about all the people mentioned in this blog post, and in particular, if there is any information about the parents of my five times great grandfather Michael, the hatter/felt maker, from Pontefract. It seems his father was called Michael. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the maps used in this blog have been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography

Bill Henderson/Henwick Hall Farm via Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0

Brayton. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/WRY/Brayton : accessed May 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

England and Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1995. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Hanks, Patrick et al. (2016.) The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Lewis, Samuel ed. (1848) A Topological Directory of England. London: Lewis. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-dict/england : accessed May 2021.

Petre, Hon. Edward. https://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1820-1832/member/petre-hon-edward-1794-1848 : accessed May 2021.

Redmonds, George. ((2015) A Dictionary of Yorkshire Surnames. Donington: Shaum Tyas.  

UK, Poll Books and Electoral Registers, 1538-1893. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

UK, Register of Duties Paid for Apprentice’s Indentures, 1710-1811. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Vision of Britain. https://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Alehouse Licences, 1771-1962. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1512-1812. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

West Yorkshire, England, Select Land Tax Records, 1704-1932. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Yorkshire baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed May 2021.

Alice Beilby (born about 1822) and Robert Thackeray (1825-1859)

Alice is my first cousin four times removed. I have already written about her younger sister, Esther, (1830-1875) who emigrated with her husband William Heaton and two sons, to Utah, USA in 1856. William was a Mormon Elder who had met Esther while he was developing his ministry in the East Riding of Yorkshire in the 1850s. It was entries in his missionary journal which helped me to find out more information about Alice and her husband Robert.

Alice was baptised on 17 February 1822 in St Helen’s Church, Wheldrake, to parents Thomas Beilby (1789-1859) and Mary Walker (1793-1850). By the 1841 census Alice was living in the nearby village of Escrick where she was working for Joseph Lewis, a farming bailiff. At some point Alice moved to York where she became a servant in the North and East Riding’s Pauper Lunatic Asylum, in Clifton. The asylum had opened on 7 April 1847.

OS Yorkshire174 date 1853

Note: the three circles show the asylum, approximate position of St Olave’s parish church and the one on the far right is York Minster.

While she was at the asylum, she met another servant, Robert Thackeray, who was a baker. Robert had been baptised on 18 January 1825 in St Sampson’s Church, York, to parents Robert, a butcher and Elizabeth. Robert was admitted into the Register of Freemen of the City of York on 27 April 1846, by birth right, and his address given as Swinegate, York. 

Around the time Alice met Robert, he seems to have also had a liaison with Mary Ann Richardson. Mary had entered the asylum as a patient in December 1848, been deemed cured and started work there as a housemaid. Robert was named as the father of her child in a report on a bastardy case detailed in the York Herald (23 November 1850, page 6). It seems that Mary had left the asylum in June 1850 and declared that the child she was carrying was Robert’s. Robert was then given notice to quit by the asylum; he said that he would marry Mary if the committee of visitors would allow him to continue working there. They didn’t agree to his request. The magistrates in the bastardy case ordered Robert to pay Mary 1s 6d per week towards the upkeep of her son, Albert, who was born 25 October 1850 and baptised on 1 November 1850 in St Cuthbert’s Church, York. Mary and Albert were living at 34 Bilton Street, York at the time.

Robert left the asylum in June 1850, along with Alice, my ancestor. They were married by licence in St Olave’s church in York on 11 June 1850; they both gave their address as the asylum. Robert’s father, Robert’s occupation was recorded as a butcher and Alice’s father, Thomas’s occupation as a farmer.

St Olave’s Church Tower (York)

By the 1851 census Robert and Alice were living in Wheldrake with her father, Thomas, and Alice’s siblings, William and Mary. What happened next was something of a mystery, until I re-read the missionary journal of William Heaton’s, Alice’s brother in law. His entries for 18 and 19 November 1851 talk about Brother Thackeray (Robert’s brother George) and Alice herself, as follows:

Extracts from William Heaton’s missionary journal for 18 and 19 November 1851

From this it seems that Robert had already emigrated to the USA, perhaps to avoid paying for his son Albert. He may not though have adopted the Mormon faith as I couldn’t find him in either the Saints by Sea or the Mormon Migration Databases.

William later recorded in his diary entry for 2 April 1852 that he had taken tea with “a number of saints and friends at Mother Newsom’s”. Alice was about to join her husband in the USA and this was her farewell party. William then helped Alice with her luggage to the railway station on 5 April and by 8 April the family had heard that Alice had arrived safely in Liverpool. Despite an extensive search of passenger lists and Mormon records I have been unable to find when either Robert or Alice left for the USA. They don’t feature again in William’s journal, although Robert’s younger brother George does. George (1836-1890) arrived in Utah on 7 January 1853 where he served as a Justice of the Peace and County Commissioner.

Unfortunately, the only other record I’ve been able to find for Robert is a Millennium File record on Ancestry with details of Robert’s death on 9 January 1859. No further corroborating evidence has been found.

A record of Alice’s second marriage to Daniel Badcock on 17 September 1868 in Manhattan, Kings, New York, USA has been found. Daniel (born about 1834) had travelled to the USA sometime after he was made bankrupt on 30 May 1862. He had been a brewer and publican of the Bevois Tavern, Winchester, Hampshire, England. However, no further census or other records have so far been found for the couple. A particular challenge with regards to Alice is her age which varies widely depending on the record. For example, when she married Robert in 1850 she said she was 22 (born about 1828), in the 1851 census her age was recorded as 26 (born about 1825) and when she married Daniel she gave her age as 35 (born about 1833). The only baptism record found for Alice was in 1822.   

If you know more about what happened to Alice, Robert and Daniel then do please contact me.  

Note: the map used in this blog has been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography:

Baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed April 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed April 2021.

Freemen records. Collection: City of York Apprentices and Freemen, 1272-1930. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed April 2021.

Heaton, Daniel H. ed. (1967) Missionary Journal of William Heaton. Utah: Publishers Press. https://www.familysearch.org/catalog/search : accessed April 2021.

London Gazette. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed April 2021.

Mormon Migration Database, 1840-1932. https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/2365248 : accessed April 2021.

Newspapers. Collection: British Newspaper Collection. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed April 2021.

North and East Ridings of Yorkshire Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Annual Report 1850. https://wellcomelibrary.org/item/b30313740#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=0&z=-0.4374%2C0.2678%2C1.9259%2C0.9745 : accessed April 2021.

North and East Ridings of Yorkshire Pauper Lunatic Asylum (Clifton). https://www.countyasylums.co.uk/clifton-york/ : accessed April 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : April 2021.

Saints by Sea. https://saintsbysea.lib.byu.edu/ : accessed April 2021.

St Olave’s Church Tower. Beep boop beep, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 : accessed April 2021.

The Spencer Family and a Tragedy at Stillingfleet, Yorkshire

A contact from a fellow family researcher alerted me to an interesting grave in St Helen’s churchyard, Stillingfleet, which lists the names of 11 people who were drowned in the tidal River Ouse on 26 December 1833.  He kindly agreed that I could use the following photos of the grave:

Four of the people listed were called Spencer. I knew that I had Spencer ancestors on the Sarginson side of my family tree, but I had not completed my research on them. My four times great grandfather was John Spencer (1776-1843) and his father was Edward Spencer (1748-1811). What I discovered was that the four Spencers named on the gravestone were related to me:

  • Henry Spencer (1790-1833), my fifth great uncle and two of his daughters Sarah (1817-1833) and Elizabeth (1819-1833), my first cousins five times removed.
  • Christopher Spencer (1798-1833,) my fifth great uncle.

The following chart shows how the family members were related to each other:

Spencer family descendant chart
Descendant chart for the Spencer family

A transcription of the parish burial records for the four family members is shown below. It was annotated to indicate that Henry, Elizabeth and Sarah were a “father and two daughters”.

Stillingfleet Parish Records -extract of family burials

The Tragedy

In order to find out more about what happened to the people who died, the two main York newspapers of the time, Yorkshire Gazette and York Herald, were consulted for further details. The Yorkshire Gazette (28 December 1833, page 3) provided a lengthy report of the incident. Fourteen people from the Stillingfleet church choir had set out in the early afternoon of 26 December 1833 to sing Christmas hymns at various places within the parish. This had involved travelling on the River Ouse in a small boat owned by a local fisherman called John Turner.

About 4pm, as dusk was setting in, the party were on the river, having left Acaster Selby, heading downstream on the ebbing tide towards Stillingfleet landing. Two members of the party, John Fisher and George Eccles were rowing the boat, when they came across a coal barge called Perseverance, coming up the river towards them. It had its sails up with a rope to a horse on the Acaster side river bank. It is not clear why John Turner recommended the men row the boat between the barge and the river bank, but the consequences for the choir were devastating. They were unable to row it over the rope, despite it being loosened by Stephen Green who was leading the horse; and, although an attempt was made to lift the rope over the boat, the boat capsized. Of the 14 people who had set off that afternoon, only three survived: John Fisher, George Eccles and Richard Toes. Despite an extensive search of the river the following day only nine of the eleven missing choir members bodies were found; they were:

  • Five men: William Bristow (55, parish clerk), Christopher Spencer (36), Henry Spencer (44), John Turner (55) and Thomas Webster (44)
  • Four young women: Elizabeth Buckle (15, daughter of the inn keeper), Elizabeth Spencer (14, daughter of Henry Spencer), Clarissa Sturdy (15, daughter of the schoolmaster) and Jane Turner (16, daughter of John Turner).

The bodies of two young women were not found: Sarah Eccles (16, daughter of George Eccles) and Sarah Spencer (16, daughter of Henry Spencer).

The Yorkshire Gazette reported that, on the day after the tragedy that:

A little after two o’clock, Bessy Spencer, one of the daughters of Henry Spencer, was found. The family was sorely afflicted. The disconsolate widow, who has a child at the breast, is left with eight children and is herself in a delicate state of health, having recently been a patient in the County Hospital.”

The following map shows the approximate location of the accident together with the location of Acaster Selby and Stillingfleet landing:

OS Yorkshire 204 map dated 1849

The Inquest

An inquest into the tragedy was held on 27 December 1833 at the White Swan Inn, Stillingfleet where the landlord was Mr Sturdy, Clarissa’s father. The coroner was John Wood Esquire and a jury was elected from the local community. It was extensively reported in the York Herald (4 January 1834, page 3); the viewing of the nine deceased individuals was described as follows:

The bodies of the men presented a fine, robust appearance, – and those of the young women betoken that death spares neither youth, nor beauty.

A number of witnesses were called by the Coroner, including John Fisher, George Eccles, William Rogerson (captain of the Perseverance) and Stephen Green from Cawood who was leading the horse. While it seems clear that John Turner, the owner of the rowing boat, had recommended that it pass between the coal barge and the river bank on the Acaster side of the river, it isn’t clear why he suggested this course of action. He was one of the five men killed; his proposal had been agreed by the others because they thought that, as a regular user of the river, he was more knowledgeable than they were. If they had stayed on the Stillingfleet side of the river then the accident would have been avoided.

The crew on board the Perseverance were unable to use their own boat to help those in the water as it had come loose and drifted free when they had run their barge to the river bank where it became stuck in the mud. They did rescue two of the men, John Fisher and Richard Toes, who were clinging onto the rope between the barge and the horse.

After hearing all the evidence, the coroner declared that the incident was “clearly an accident” and the jury:

Without hesitation returned, a verdict in each case, of ACCIDENTALLY DROWNED, with a deodand of 1s[hilling] on the boat. “

Note: a deodand is a legal term for the instrument which caused a person’s death. (Hey, 2008) In this case the boat was deemed at fault for the accident.

The Funeral

A report of the funeral appeared in the Yorkshire Gazette (4 January 1834, page 3). A large single grave for the nine bodies had been dug by 30 members of the village; P B Thompson Esquire, a local landowner, paid all the funeral expenses. The funeral was attended by a large number of people as quoted in the newspaper:

The number of mourners could not be less than 120, and the emotions they displayed were heartrending in the extreme.”

The Reverend Bree from Haxby officiated, with the Stillingfleet minister, Reverend D F Markham, giving a sermon. Choristers from the nearby Escrick church also assisted with the funeral. Reverend Markham was acknowledged as having visited the bereaved families to offer support and assistance.

Coffins for the nine parishioners had been made by the workmen at Escrick Hall, paid for by P B Thompson Esquire and were described thus:

The coffins were made of black wood, – those of the men being neatly ornamented with gilt wire, – and those of the females, with white ornaments.”

The coffins were taken into the church in three groups of three for the service, with the final group comprising Henry Spencer, Elizabeth Spencer and Christopher Spencer. After the service the coffins were taken to the churchyard and laid side by side in the grave. Concern for the bereaved families was mentioned in the newspaper and that they were likely to need financial help.

Spencer Family

The consequences of the tragedy for the two Spencer families were significant; they were left without breadwinners. Christopher had a wife and four children and Henry a wife and eight children. 

Christopher’s wife, Jane Watson (born 1804) remarried in 1840. In the 1841 census she was in Stillingfleet with her husband, two further children and three of her children from her marriage to Christopher: Elizabeth (1827-1915), Charles (1832-1905) and Christopher (1834-1879). Christopher who was born after his father died was baptised on 31 August 1834 with his mother Jane described as a widow. Charles and Christopher, and their sibling, Sarah (1823-1899), and Edward (1829-1893), all went on to have families.

It seems likely that Henry’s family didn’t fair so well after the accident. His wife, Frances Harrison (1789-1834), died a year after her husband Henry. The fortunes of their eight surviving children varied somewhat as follows:

  • Hannah (1811-1894) married and moved to Cawood where she died.
  • George (1813-1882) married and moved near Doncaster where his death was registered.
  • John (1815-1836) died aged 21 and is buried in Stillingfleet.
  • Frances (1822-1878) married and emigrated to Canada in 1851 with her family.
  • Mary (born 1826) was probably a servant in York in 1851. She may have been a pupil at the Grey Coats School for Girls in York.
  • Anne (1828-1846) died aged 18 and is buried in Stillingfleet.
  • Jane (1830-1873) married and moved to York where she died.
  • Henry (1833-1926) married, became a farmer, and died in Thorganby.

I am interested in knowing more about all the people mentioned in this blog post. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the map used in this blog has been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography

Baptisms, marriages and burials. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed March 2021.

Census records. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/ : accessed March 2021.

Hey, David. Ed (2008) The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Newspapers. Collection: British Newspaper Collection. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed March 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : March 2021.

Stillingfleet. https://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/ERY/Stillingfleet : accessed March 2021.

Alfred and Martha Haw – York, England

Alfred Haw (1869-1940) is my first cousin four times removed. He was born in Heslington, near York, the youngest son of Joseph Haw (1818-1875) and his second wife Anne Cariss (1827-1888). In 1871 Joseph was farming 55 acres in Heslington. By 1891 Alfred was a general labourer living with his brother Frederick (1861-1936), a gardener, at 93A Heworth, York. Alfred married Martha Emma Fowler (1867-1938) on 10 July 1892 in the Centenary Chapel (Wesleyan Methodist), in York. Alfred was described as a labourer from Dennison St, York and Martha, a domestic servant, whose father John, a railway foreman, was deceased. Alfred’s brother Edwin was one of the witnesses.

Alfred and Martha had four daughters and one son. No baptism record has been found for Elsie their eldest daughter. Lydia, Lily and Alfred were all baptised in St Maurice’s Church, Monkgate while the family were living in Dennison St. The church was demolished in 1966. Ivy was baptised at St Thomas’, York with a change to her father Alfred’s occupation. Their address’ proximity to the Rowntree Cocoa works, suggest that Alfred was working at Rowntree’s by November 1899. The following table shows their children’s birth and baptisms and where the family were living in York and Alfred’s occupation.

Child’s nameBirth dateBaptism dateAddressAlfred’s occupation
Elsie Evelyn Haw21 Jul 1893   
Lydia Anne Haw21 Aug 18954 Sep 189517 Dennison StLabourer
Lily Constance Haw05 Dec 189623 Dec 189617 Dennison StLabourer
Alfred Edward HawQ2 189827 Apr 189817 Dennison StLabourer
Ivy Maud HawQ4 189915 Nov 1899Ashville StPacker
Table 1 Baptism details for Alfred and Martha’s children

All seems to have been well with the family until the later part of the 19th century. However, what happened to the family in the early 20th century becomes less clear. In the 1901 census Alfred was recorded as the only member of his household at 2 Ashville St, York. Neither his wife Martha nor any of his five children were recorded as living with him at the time. Further census records for his wife Martha and son Alfred have so far proved elusive. Three of Alfred and Martha’s daughters, Elsie, Lydia and Lily, were recorded in the 1901 census in St Stephen’s Orphanage, Trinity Lane, York and their youngest daughter Ivy was probably living with Frederick, one of Alfred’s siblings.

St Stephen’s orphanage was set up in York in 1870 in a house in Precentor’s court near York Minster to provide for destitute orphans. By 1901 the orphanage occupied premises in Trinity Lane (numbers 21, 23, 25 and 27), York and that is where Alfred and Martha’s daughters were living in the 1901 census. By then it was providing for children who had lost one or both their parents. Elsie, Lydia and Lily’s father Alfred was alive in 1901, as evidenced by his entry in the 1901 census. The following extract from the OS (1910) Yorkshire CLXXIV.SW map shows the location of Trinity Lane in York (marked by a square box). The premises occupied by the orphanage have been converted to residential use.

OS (1910) Yorkshire CLXXIV.SW map

What is unclear is what had happened to Martha and her son Alfred by the 1901 census; they haven’t been found in either the 1901 or later censuses in York.

By the 1911 census it seems that Alfred senior had been reunited with two of his daughters: Lily and Ivy, who were living with him at 2 Ashville St, York; his occupation was recorded as a labourer. His two eldest daughters, Elsie and Lydia, were both working as servants. Elsie was a housemaid at The Mount School in York and Lydia a kitchen maid at Alne Hall, Yorkshire. The following extract from the OS (1910) Yorkshire CLXXIV.NW map shows the location of Ashville St in York (marked by a square box).

OS (1910) Yorkshire CLXXIV.NW map

The FindmyPast collection of National School Admission Registers and Log-Books helped bridge the gap between the 1901 and 1911 census records. Some information about the girl’s education was gleaned from these records, although no information for their son Alfred was found. The following table charts each of their daughter’s education.

Elsie Evelyn HawLydia Anne HawLily Constance HawIvy Maud Haw
SchoolBishophill and Clementhorpe Infants for GirlsBishophill and Clementhorpe Infants for GirlsPark Grove Infants for GirlsPark Grove Infants for Girls
Date entered21 Feb 190229 Jun 190313 Aug 190615 Feb 1910
Home addressThe Home, Skeldergate58 Skeldergate13 Lord Mayor’s Walk2 Ashville St
Date left4 Jul 19027 Jul 190429 Jan 190725 Aug 1911
Next schoolGrey Coat School for GirlsGrey Coat School for GirlsHaxby SchoolLeeman Rd School
Table 2 Four daughters and their schools

Elsie and Lydia also attended the Grey Coat School for girls. This was a charity school which fed, clothed and prepared pupils for domestic service.  

Whilst no further information has been found for Alfred and Martha’s son Alfred, Martha’s death certificate does help to explain what had happened to her. She died on 5 February 1938 in York City Mental Hospital, Fulford. It is possible that she had been in a mental institution since around the turn of the 20th century, although that has not yet been confirmed. A visit to the Borthwick to consult their mental health records is planned for when archives can re-open.

It looks like Alfred was unable to cope with his children around the time of the 1901 census, hence why he was living on his own and three of his daughters were in St Stephen’s Orphanage and his youngest was probably living with one of his brothers. He was reunited with his two youngest daughters by 1911. It is likely that the education his two older daughters Elsie and Lydia received meant that they were able to secure work by the time of the 1911 census.

Only one of Alfred and Martha’s daughters, Ivy, married; the other three remained single. Brief biographies for Alfred and his four daughters are as follows:

Alfred Haw (1869-1940) continued to live in 2 Ashville St, York and in the 1939 Register he was listed as a widow and confectioner’s labourer with two of his unmarried daughters: Elsie and Lydia. He died in York in Q2, 1940 at the age of 70.

Elsie Evelyn Haw (1893-1984) remained single and in the 1939 register was recorded as a housekeeper. She died in York in Q2, 1984 at the age of 90.

Lydia Anne Haw (1895-1985) was a daily maid in 1939. She was living at 2 Ashville St, York when died on 25 September 1985. She left an estate of approximately £40,000 and was the last member of her immediate family to live at the address.

Lily Constance Haw (1896-1983) was a patient in the York City Mental Hospital in Fulford, near York in the 1939 Register. Her personal occupation was described as “private means”. She died at the age of 85 and her death was registered in York in Q1, 1983.

Ivy Maud Haw (1899-1977) married Joseph Taylor in Q2 1932. They were living at 34 Diamond St, York in the 1939 Register. Ivy died in York in Q1, 1977.

I am interested in knowing more about all the people mentioned in this blog post, and in particular what happened to Alfred and Martha’s son Alfred. Do contact me if you have any further information which you are willing to share.

Note: the maps used in this blog has been reproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland under the following creative commons licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ and sourced from the NLS maps site https://maps.nls.uk/.

Bibliography:

National School Admission Registers and Log-Books 1870-1914. https://www.findmypast.co.uk/ : accessed February 2021.

OS Maps. https://maps.nls.uk/ : February 2021.

St Maurice, Monkgate. http://secretyork.com/st-maurice-monkgate/ : accessed February 2021.

St Stephen’s Orphanage, York. https://yorkcivictrust.co.uk/heritage/civic-trust-plaques/st-stephens-orphanage-1870-1969/ : accessed February 2021.

St Stephen’s Orphanage, York. http://www.childrenshomes.org.uk/YorkStStephen/ : accessed February 2021.

Tillott, P. M. ed. (1961) Victoria County History: A History of Yorkshire, The City of York. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 440-460.